Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder, is the most common form of learning disability accounting for 80% of all learning disabilities. It is characterized by trouble with reading unrelated to problems with overall intelligence.
A. In early childhood, symptoms include delayed onset of speech, difficulty distinguishing left from right, difficulty with direction, as well as being easily distracted by background noise.
B. In late childhood signs include difficulty in identifying or generating rhyming words, counting the number of syllables in words. They may also show difficulty in segmenting words into individual sounds or may blend sounds when producing words, difficulties with word retrieval or naming things.
C. Problems persist into adolescence and adulthood and may accompany difficulties with summarizing stories, memorization, reading aloud, or learning foreign languages.
A. Dysgraphia : A disorder which primarily expresses itself through difficulties with writing or typing, but in some cases through difficulties associated with eye–hand coordination and direction- or sequence-oriented processes such as tying knots or carrying out repetitive tasks.
B. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A significant degree of co-morbidity has been reported between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and reading disorders such as dyslexia. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) occurs in 12–24% of all individuals with dyslexia.
The exact cause of Dyslexia is still unknown. Various theories have postulated the interplay of genetics and environmental factors as its causes.
There are tests that can indicate with high probability whether a person is dyslexic. If diagnostic testing indicates that a person may be dyslexic, such tests are often followed up with a full diagnostic assessment to determine the extent and nature of the disorder.
A. Through the use of compensation strategies, therapy and educational support, dyslexic individuals can learn to read and write. There are techniques and technical aids which help to manage or conceal symptoms of the disorder.
B. Removing stress and anxiety alone can sometimes improve written comprehension. The fundamental aim is to increase a child's awareness of correspondences between graphemes (letters) and phonemes (sounds), and to relate these to reading and spelling by teaching how sounds blend into words.
C. Reinforced collateral training focused on reading and spelling yields longer-lasting gains than oral phonological training alone.
D. Early intervention – that is done while the language areas of the brain are still developing – is the most successful in reducing the long-term impacts of dyslexia.
E. The use of specially-tailored fonts mitigate the effects of dyslexia. These fonts were created based on the idea that many of the letters of the Latin alphabet are visually similar and may therefore confuse dyslexics.