Autism Spectrum Disorders

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of complex disorders of brain development. These disorders are characterized by difficulties in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication and stereotypical, repetitive and restrictive patterns of behaviours, interests and activities.

What is Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

A. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability  that can cause significant social, communication and behavioural challenges. There is often nothing about how people with ASD look that sets them apart from other people, but people with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may communicate, interact, behave, and learn in ways that are different from most other people. The learning, thinking, and problem-solving abilities of people with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can range from gifted to severely challenged. Some people with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) need a lot of help in their daily lives; others need less.

  • B. A diagnosis of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) now includes various conditions as listed:

    • Autistic disorder (classic autism).
    • Asperger’s disorder (Asperger syndrome).
    • Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS).
    • Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD)

What is current prevalence?

  1. The CDC survey found that around 1 in 110 children has Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Boys face about four to five times higher risk than girls.
  2. Estimated prevalence 1.12 [INCLEN study, unpublished data].
  3. The incidence of Autism spectrum disorder in males 1:42 whereas in females it about 1:189.
  4. This makes that every 1 in 68 children is diagnosed with Autism spectrum disorder.

What is current prevalence?

  1. The CDC survey found that around 1 in 110 children has Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Boys face about four to five times higher risk than girls.
  2. Estimated prevalence 1.12 [INCLEN study, unpublished data].
  3. The incidence of Autism spectrum disorder in males 1:42 whereas in females it about 1:189.
  4. This makes that every 1 in 68 children is diagnosed with Autism spectrum disorder.

What are the other clues on history and observation?

  • Visual: Seeing things from a particular angle.
  • Auditory: Pretends to be deaf, capping hand over their ears.
  • Olfactory : Sniffing objects.
  • Perceptual : Refusing to eat food with certain textures or tastes, mouthing of objects, compulsive touching of certain objects or t extures, diminished response to pain, increased sensitivity to touch like the  feel of running water, adversity to bathing.
  • Mood may be inappropriate to the situation or circumstances.
  • Uncontrollable crying or laughing.
  • May be oblivious to hazards or may have excessive fear of harmless objects.

When does one suspect Autism in a child?

Not point at objects to show interest (for example, not point at an airplane flying over)

Not look at objects when another person points at them

Have trouble relating to others or not have an interest in other people at all

Avoid eye contact and want to be alone

Have trouble understanding other people’s feelings or talking about their own feelings

Prefer not to be held or cuddled, or might cuddle only when they want to

Appear to be unaware when people talk to them, but respond to other sounds

Be very interested in people, but not know how to talk, play, or relate to them

Repeat or echo words or phrases said to them, or repeat words or phrases in place of normal language

Have trouble expressing their needs using typical words or motions

Not play “pretend” games (for example, not pretend to “feed” a doll)

Repeat actions over and over again

Have trouble adapting when a routine changes

Have unusual reactions to the way things smell, taste, look, feel, or sound

Lose skills they once had (for example, stop saying words they were using)

What are the red flag Signs to pick Autism at an early age?

Absence of:

  • Babbling by 12 months
  • Gesturing (e.g., pointing, waving bye-bye) by 12 months
  • Single words by 16 months
  • Two-word spontaneous (not just echolalia) phrases by 24 months

Loss of any language or social skills at any age

What is the cause for Autism?

Genetic factors :

  • In identical twins who share the exact same genetic code, if one has Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the other twin also has Autism spectrum disorder Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in nearly 9 out of 10 cases. If one sibling has Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the other siblings have 35 times the normal risk of also developing the disorder. Researchers are starting to identify par­ticular genes that may increase the risk for Autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
  • Most people who develop Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have no reported family history of autism, suggesting that random, rare, and possibly many gene muta­tions are likely to affect a person’s risk. Any change to normal genetic information is called a mutation. Mutations can be inherited, but some arise for no reason. Mutations can be helpful, harmful, or have no effect.

Environmental factors :

  • In medicine, “environment” refers to anything outside of the body that can affect health. This includes the air we breathe, the water we drink and bathe in, the food we eat, the medicines we take, and many other things that our bodies may come in contact with. Environment also includes our surroundings in the womb, when our mother’s health directly affects our growth and earliest development.
  • Researchers are studying many environmental factors such as family medical conditions, parental age and other demographic factors, expo­sure to toxins, and complications during birth or pregnancy.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Vaccine :

  • Recent research has proven that there is no co-relation between vaccinations and Autism Spectrum Disorders.

How is Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosed?

A. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis is often a two-stage process.

  •  The first stage involves general developmental Screening during well-child check-ups with a paediatrician.
  • The second stage involves a thorough Comprehensive diagnostic evaluation by a team of doctors .

B. Children with autism spectrum disorder Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can usually be reliably diagnosed by age 2. Early intervention can reduce or prevent the more severe disabilities associated with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Early intervention may also improve your child’s language, communication and everyday functional skills.

How is Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) treated?

While there’s no proven cure yet for Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), treating Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) early, using school-based programs, and getting proper medical care can greatly reduce Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms and increase your child’s ability to grow and learn new skills.

Early intervention:

Research has shown that intensive behavioural therapy during the toddler or preschool years can significantly improve cognitive and language skills in young children with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

There is no single best treatment for all children with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the common features of effective early intervention programs include:

  • Starting as soon as a child has been diagnosed with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)
  • Providing focused and challenging learning activities at the proper developmental level for the child for     at least 25 hours per week and 12 months per year.
  • Having small classes to allow each child to have one-on-one time with the therapist or teacher and small    group learning activities.
  • Having special training for parents and family.
  • Encouraging activities that include typically developing children, as long as such activities help meet a specific learning goal.
  • Measuring and recording each child’s progress and adjusting the intervention program as needed.
  • Providing a high degree of structure, routine, and visual cues, such as posted activity schedules and    clearly defined boundaries, to reduce distractions.
  • Guiding the child in adapting learned skills to new situations and settings and maintaining learned skills.
  • Using a curriculum that focuses on Language and communication.
  • Social skills, such as joint attention (looking at other people to draw attention to something interesting  and share in experiencing it).
  • Self-help and daily living skills, such as dressing and grooming.
  • Research-based methods to reduce challenging behaviours, such as aggression and tantrums.
  • Cognitive skills, such as pretend play or seeing someone else’s point of view.
  • Typical school-readiness skills, such as letter recognition and counting.
  • One type of a widely accepted treatment is applied behaviour analysis (ABA).
  • The goals of ABA are to shape and reinforce new behaviours, such as learning to speak and play, and     reduce undesirable ones.
  1. What are the conditions associated with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

Sensory problems :

  • Many children with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) either overreact or under react to certain sights, sounds, smells, textures, and tastes.

For example, some may:

  • Dislike or show discomfort from a light touch or the feel of clothes on their skin
  • Experience pain from certain sounds, like a vacuum cleaner, a ringing telephone, or a sudden storm; sometimes they will cover their ears and scream.
  • Have no reaction to intense cold or pain.

Sleep problems :

  • Children with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tend to have problems falling asleep or staying asleep, or have other sleep problems. These problems make it harder for them to pay attention, reduce their ability to function, and lead to poor behavior.

Intellectual disability :

  • Many children with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have some degree of intellectual disability. When tested, some areas of ability may be normal, while others—especially cognitive (thinking) and language abilities—may be relatively weak.

Seizures :

  • One in four children with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has seizures, often starting either in early childhood or during the teen years. Seizures. Sometimes lack of sleep or a high fever can trigger a seizure.

Fragile X syndrome :

  • Fragile X syndrome is a genetic disorder and is the most common form of inheritence. An Intellectual disability, causing symptoms similar to Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Because this disorder is inherited, children with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) should be checked for Fragile X, especially if the parents want to have more children.

Tuberous sclerosis :

  • Tuberous sclerosis is a rare genetic disorder that causes noncancerous tumors to grow in the brain and other vital organs. Tuberous sclerosis occurs in 1 to 4 percent of people with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Gastrointestinal problems :

  • Some parents of children with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) report that their child has frequent gastrointestinal (GI) or digestion problems, including stomach pain, diarrhoea, constipation, acid reflux, vomiting, or bloating.

Co-occurring mental disorders:

  • Children with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can also develop mental disorders such as anxiety disorders, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or depression.

Speech Therapy

Speech therapy is an intervention service that focuses on improving a child’s speech and abilities to understand and express language, including nonverbal language.

ABA Therapy

ABA is a scientifically proven technique to bring about changes in the behavior like reducing the unwanted and reinforcing the desired behavior.


Physiotherapy is a scientifically proven method to help promote increased mobility, strength, postural control, flexibility, coordination and gross motor skills in a child.

Occupational Therapy

Occupational Therapy is an art and science of enabling and incorporating skills in a child to help them participate in everyday living through occupation.

Psychological Services

Continua Kids-Clinical Psychology wing provides psychological care to outpatients. The treatment provided here is holistic and individual oriented.

Special Education

Special education is the method of educating students with special educational needs. It addresses their individual and different needs.


@ Dr Himani Maam, More than a good doctor, I have the fact that you were a good listener. We are obliged to you for your effective analysis and diagnosis for our son "Sri**n". First of all, it has eased us from the negative thoughts we had and clarified a lot of doubts. In addition to this it has helped us in taking a focused approach towards the treatment. I am also thankful to almighty that I have been recommended to Continua Kids on time. We got all suggestions and support to make the course correction which was necessary for my son.
Pe*li & Sw**up Pan**rahi

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